Victorious at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, the invading Duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror, spent

Tower of London ( PART- 1)

the rest of the year securing his holdings by consolidating key positions. He established several palaces along the way, but

took a winding route towards London; Only upon reaching Canterbury did he turn to the largest city in England. Since

the fortified bridge in London was held by Saxon troops, he decided to ravage Southwark before continuing his journey

around southern England. A series of Norman victories along the route cut off the city's supply lines, and in December

1066, isolated and fearful, its leaders conquered London without a fight. Between 1066 and 1087, William established

36 castles, although references in the Domesday Book indicate that many more were founded by his subordinates.The new ruling elite has

described it as "the most extensive and concentrated program of castle-building in the entire history of feudal Europe". They were multi-

purpose buildings, serving as fortifications (used as bases of operations in enemy territory). centers of administration, and residence.